OS Integration Files in Python Packages

My go-to method for deploying command line tools I've written is to build Python packages and installing them. This works well for putting the tools on the PATH, but one thing I've been missing is to also include "OS integration files" (such as man pages, .desktop app launchers, and systemd unit files). Recently I learned a way to do it.

Files in a Python Package

A python package can be seen as containing three different types of files:

Documentation and tool support for resource files seems to be widely available. This article is about the third type (which I call "OS integration files" as I don't know any better or standardized term). These kind of files are mostly portable within the sphere of Unix-like systems. There they get installed in a location like /usr/local for system installs and ~/.local for user installs. This is useful since tools like the man page reader, the desktop environment, and systemd look for files there.

I struggled to find documentation and examples for how to include such files in Python packages, but eventually I found how to do it in thee Python build systems: Flit, Setuptools and Hatch. A limitation of the approach is that it only works with "user" and "system" installs with pip and not with virtual environments. This article is a summary of what I learned.

An example application: striking-clock

A small toy project will serve as the example: striking-clock. The full source for the package is available in a GitHub repo with examples for all of the build systems. It has a 25-line script (striking-clock) which prints "BONG!" a number of times (the current hour) and then exits.

The program is supposed to be executed every hour. That is taken care of by the two accompanying systemd user unit files. There is one service, which just runs the script, and one timer, which activates the service once every new hour.

The goal is to install these files in the share/systemd/user directory below the "local" directory (/usr/local or ~/.local).

The striking-clock source code has the following files:

The pyproject.toml file looks nearly identical for all three build systems thanks to PEP 621. Here are the lines common to all the build systems:

name = "striking_clock"
version = "1.0.0"
description = "A service that goes BONG! BONG! BONG! every hour."
readme = ""
authors = [{name = "Rasmus Bondesson", email = ""}]
license = {file = "LICENSE"}
classifiers = ["License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License"]
requires-python = ">=3.5, <4"
dependencies = [

Home = ""

striking-clock = "striking_clock:main"

Now for the build system dependent parts.

Declaring OS Integration Files

Example Using Flit

In Flit, you include OS integration files by specifing a single "external data" directory. The destination path in the "local" directory simplay mirrors the path inside the "external data" directory. Here is how the project file tree look accomodating this if we name the "external data" directory data:

├── data
│   └── share
│       └── systemd
│           └── user
│               ├── striking-clock.service
│               └── striking-clock.timer
├── pyproject.toml

The pyproject.toml then gets some additions, notably a tool-specific external-data section:

requires = ["flit_core >=3.7,<4"]
build-backend = "flit_core.buildapi"

directory = "data"

Fairly easy! The deeply nested directories may be a bit annoying, but at least they follow a simple rule. Also note the requires version: support for external-data was added in flit-core 3.7.0 (released February 23, 2022).

Example Using Setuptools

Setuptools' approach is to list all included OS integration files (called "non-package data files" or simply "data_files") in a tool-specific data-files sections:

requires = ["setuptools"]
build-backend = "setuptools.build_meta"

"share/systemd/user" = [

In contrast to Flit, Setuptools allows the source files to be placed anywhere in the source tree. In this example they are in the root for simplicity. The destination path is defined in the pyproject.toml file. The data files section contains dictionaries where the keys are destination directories and the values are lists of files to be installed in destination directory.

If you use a setup.cfg file, then the added section instead looks like this:

share/systemd/user =

And if you sue a file, then the argument to setup() looks like this:

        ("share/systemd/user", [

I should probably note that data-files has been deprecated in Setuptools. Examples in the documentation were removed in October 31, 2021. The documentation for the data-files keyword only says:

data_files is deprecated. It does not work with wheels, so it should be avoided.

This is a bit odd, since at least the example in this article does in fact work with weels. The documentation for OS integration files – "Non-Package Data Files" in Setuptools parlance – urges the reader to consider using reasource files instead (which doesn't work if OS integration is what's really needed.)

In April 24, 2022 a discussion for adding a replacement for data-files was started, citing the features of Flit and Hatch as inspiration. I find it a bit ironic that the Flit shared-data feature was inspired by data-files from Setuptools.

Example Using Hatch

In Hatch, including OS integration files (called "shared data" here) is something done by wheel builder plugin. To configure it, we add a tool-specific build.targets.wheel.shared-data section to pyproject.toml:

requires = ["hatchling"]
build-backend = ""

"striking-clock.service" = "share/systemd/user/striking-clock.service"
"striking-clock.timer" = "share/systemd/user/striking-clock.timer"

Like in Setuptools, the source files can be stored anywhere in the source tree. In this example too, I put them in the root for simplicity. The section contains a flat listing of pairs of source files and destination paths. Note that the roles of the left and right hand sides are reversed compared to Setuptools.

Hatch has supported "shared data" since its public release in April 28, 2022.

Build and Test

This section is mostly a demo of the settings descibed above to prove that they work. Each package can be built, and installed in the same way:

pip install build
git clone
cd striking-clock/<one-of-the-example-directories>/
python -m build
pip install --user dist/striking_clock-1.0.0-py3-none-any.whl

Replace "python" and "pip" with the names suitable for your environment, for example python3 and python3 -m pip. Note that the package should either be installed in user-mode (pip install --user) or in system-mode (sudo pip install) and not in a virtual environment. The OS will not look for the OS integration files in the virtual environment location, so installing them there won't have any effect.

To try one of the other examples, uninstall the old one first and then repeat the steps above fot the new one. You can use pip show --files striking-clock to display which files got installed and where they ended up.

You should now be able to interact with the systemd units. They are user units, so the --user flag needs to be passed to all systemctl commands. Let's try the service:

# Reload unit files if that have changed
systemctl --user daemon-reload

# Check that systemd recognized the unit
systemctl --user status striking-clock.service

# Trigger the service once manually for testing
systemctl --user start striking-clock.service

# Display output from the service
journalctl -e --user-unit striking-clock.service

We can also test the timer:

# Manually start the timer (only for this boot)
systemctl --user start striking-clock.timer

# Check the status (time to next trigger, etc)
systemctl --user status striking-clock.timer

# Stop the timer again before we forget about it
systemctl --user stop striking-clock.timer

As usual with timer units, invoke the enable/disable commands to control automatic start on boot. (The service unit should not be enabled/disabled, as it is activated by the timer.)

Closing Remarks

There it is! I hope this is useful to someone else. Please get in touch if it was, or if you have any questions, or if you know any missing pieces of the puzzle I should know (for example regarding the Setuptools deprecation thing). On HTTP you can use the comment form below and on Gemini see the contact information on my main capsule page.


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